Monday, June 11, 2012
Rereading my First Note...comments that first came to mind...what you may be going though...and the link, ENJOY!
by Adopted Native American Citizenship Affected by The REAL ID Act of 2005 on Monday, June 11, 2012 at 9:53pm · PICTURE: Pennysticks Thin Pretzels, 12 oz. I'm starting to re-read my notes in an attempt to find the direction for this page. I decided re-posting each individual NOTE would be a start. The Welcome, a little about me and why I started this Facebook Page really humbles me because, I can see how absolutely desperate and hungry I was to move forward and figure out a way to get more documentation, the frustration of two forms of government, States, Arizona and New Mexico, and the Navajo Nation, an attempt to interprete the Real ID Act of 2005 and read through the lines to carve out my own path to finally obtaining my Certificate of Indian Blood and Navajo Nation Affidavit of Birth. By this time I had pretty much run out of money and was wondering in my mind where the next part of my funding was going to come out of. I did about everything, I sold gold rings, pawned gold and diamond rings, sold my gold necklaces, etc....just to keep forging on. The collateral damage has lasted still up to this last month...actually I think it was June 4, 2012...just last week, 7 days ago that I finally paid off my last pawn, and got two rings out of hawk. For some reason, the Pawn shop I had selected had been such an amazing place to me. I wonder if they could see my desperation, I'm sure it was different than any of the other person. At one point, don't remember when, I started to share with them my story and what was going on, the reason I kept selling more high dollar, valued posessions I'd had, some for almost 27 years. It was also a relief to me that I had these small bits of resoures, because they paid my rent, bills, kept my cellphone on and food in my mouth. Sometimes right after visiting the Pawn shop I would immediately walk down, cross the crosswalk, passed the Metro Station subway "Redline" stop and go directly to the 99 Cent Only store to get a meal. I was that hungry. The reason I had to sell possessions is because I was unable to get Food Stamps, qualify for any type of goverment welfare or assistance because in order to do that, you have to have a State Issued Identification "Plastic" card or a State Issued Drivers License "Plastic" card, At the time I did have a temporary Utah Drivers License, a paper document prospective employers wouldn't consider using with the United States Citizen and Immigration Services "USCIS" Employment Eligibility Verification "E-Verification" system, which means I couldn't even get a job. It was a very very tough time. I just want you all to know, if you are in this situation, You are not the only one that has been there. I had always had more than my share of wealth, a great place to live, money in the bank, a 401K Plan, great jobs, a wonderful social life, Life had been great, now was my time to be at the survivalist level, scraping by. My best friend Troy, and many other knew of how tough my life had become, I even ate pretzels and drank water for one week, because that's all I could afford, a 99 Cent bag of Pretzels sustained me with massive amounts of water, I'd eat a small handful of pretzels with like 3 glasses of water. Yup. thats where I was. To this day, it's hard to eat pretzels but the other day I went and bought some at the same 99 Cent Only Store in MacArthur Park, just so I'd be able to appreciate again the tast of pretzels, but this time I was able to down them with some great coconut water, which I would have never afforded the luxury of purchasing at some points during my struggle to regain a State Issued Drivers License and Identification. The Real ID Act has affected others and it's important to keep this page alive to help even just one person, or even a person who knows of an others struggle and understand what they may be going though. I remember once, I had to ask for money and my friend Troy lent me the money, that was when things were the most dire, after having successive businesses fail during the Depression called "The Great Recession" and the week of pretzel eating. I can laugh about it now, and can see my strength at being a survivalist, a warrior on his path to regaining that freedom again. So below is the link to my first entry.I survived the process of slow goverment, re-interpreting The Real ID Act, arguing with Vital Statistics people both State and Navajo Nation, dealing with Department of Motor Vehicle people and educating as I was learning...sometimes I even bluffed but what would you do to survive and move forward? Notice at the bottom of the note how desperate I really was. I even asked for help. Yup. below is the link to the first note, and I copied it, UNEDITED, so you would be able to experience it. THANKS AGAIN, Lele READ MY FIRST NOTE: Welcome! A little about me and why I started this Facebook Page https://www.facebook.com/notes/adopted-native-american-citizenship-affected-by-the-real-id-act-of-2005/welcome-a-little-about-me-and-why-i-started-this-facebook-page/165598250156634 My name is Leland Morrill born Leland Kirk, founder of this Facebook Page: "Adopted Native American Citizenship Affected by The REAL ID Act of 2005" I am affected by the REAL ID ACT OF 2005. The specific passages I am affected by: H. R. 418 (Real ID Act of 2005) http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/BILLS-109hr418rfs/pdf/BILLS-109hr418rfs.pdf Pages 42 through 48 cover my predicament: (pg 42) TITLE II—IMPROVED SECURITY FOR DRIVERS’ LICENSES AND PERSONAL IDENTIFICATION CARDS (pg 43) Minimum document requirements: (pg 44) (2) The person’s date of birth. (pg 45) (B) Documentation showing the person’s date of birth Page 46: (C) TEMPORARY DRIVERS’ LICENSES AND17 IDENTIFICATION CARDS (i) IN GENERAL.—If a person presents evidence under any of clauses (v) through (ix) of subparagraph (B), the State may only issue a temporary driver’s license or temporary identification card to the person. (ii) EXPIRATION DATE.—A temporary driver’s license or temporary identification card issued pursuant to this subparagraph shall be valid only during the period of time of the applicant’s authorized stay in the United States or, if there is no definite end to the period of authorized stay, a period of one year. Now my brief history and what I've done up til now, then what I need: I was adopted out of the Navajo Nation on July 15, 1971 to a wonderful anglo family. The day after we moved to Canada as my new Anglo parents, Stan and Gwena Morrill, were transferred. They were unable to obtain a Birth Certificate for me. The Navajo Nation Judicial District of Chinle adopted me, a Navajo Orphan, out of their tribe to an Anglo family. I love my adopted family, that is not the point. What is:The Trial Court of the Navajo Tribe (Chinle,AZ) adopted me Leland Kirk to the Morrills without a Birth Certificate, Certificate of Indian Blood, or Census Number. Trial Court Judge Joe G Bennalley of The Navajo Tribe, presided and Perl Bautista was the Clerk, Courts of The Navajo Tribe at my final adoption proceedings. The Judge, for some reason, must have overlooked the Birth Certificate and Census Number at the time. On my Final Judgement of Adoption (NAVAJO TRIBE) There is a C# to the right of my name, Leland Pacheco Kirk that has no number. I am assuming C#=Census Number. My Final Judgement of Adoption from the Navajo Nation in Chinle Arizona Note the C# without a Census Number to the right of my name I have spent tens of thousands of dollars throughout the past 22 years attempting to get the necessary documents to obtain even the smallest amount of infomation to fulfill the C.I.B. requirements not including all the hours day in and day out. My official first "research" document is dated September 07, 1989 Until January 13, 2011, I never knew the Navajo Nation had it's own Vital Statistics and had been working with The State of New Mexico and The State of Arizona Vital Statistics to finally obtain an Arizona "Certificate of No Birth" issued December 21, 2010 issued with my adopted anglo mothers name on it. Had I known there was a Navajo Vital Statistics, I would have not wasted 12 months of legal, emails, letters, telephone calls to Arizona Vital Statistics but instead turned to the Navajo Nation Vital Statistics. I have been working with Alicia at the Window Rock Agency Navajo Nation Vital Statistics Office. The progress is snail-pacing-ly slow. I have talked to three other employees RuthAnn, Velma and Florinda in addition to talking to Gertrude "Trudy" at the Fort Defiance Navajo Nation Vital Statistics office. For the Window Rock office to document/log and look at mail took 3 weeks. A promise to send me the CIB form 2+ weeks. FINALLY (today February 24,2011) after many weeks I get the letter Dated: February 10, 2011 mailed from a PO Box 3240 in Window Rock but the letter is stamped "Albuquerque NM 871" dated "22 Feb 2011 PM 1T" OK, the point is I got it finally from Alisia Milford. A belated thank you Alisia. SHOCK AND AWE- I do not have anything close to the amount of information needed for the enclosed documents. Navajo Nation Application for Membership and Navajo Nation Application for Services Me, Leland Morrill with my letter from Alisia, Window Rock Navajo Office of Vital Records & Identification Alisia was supposed to send me a C.I.B. or "Certificate of Indian Blood" But would it be too easy to look up online?!? Of course, Silly me: http://www.atsu.edu/orgs/said/ONNSFA_Request%20for%20CIB.pdf What I do have are PHS IH Hospital Records, Final Judgement of Adoption form the Trial Court of the Navajo Tribe, Judicial District of Chinle, Arizona in my possession. All scanned, a collection of 22, yes twenty two years of research to now use for a C.I.B. I know there are others with my predicament out there who were adopted out of their native tribes without proper documentation that H.R. 418 The Real ID Act of 2005 will soon affect their U.S. Citizenship. I started the Facebook Page "Adopted Native American Citizenship Affected by The REAL ID Act of 2005" to help me, and other Adopted Native Americans find their way back to their respective tribes. I know I can't do it by myself. I need funds. I need time. I need resources. This will come as my situation and others behind me will soon need more resources. I would like to be the first to obtain some type of funding because IT'S EXPENSIVE to hire attorneys, notary publics,legal help, endless phone-calls, letter writing. and research So far it's me who's funding my own research and my own time. It's getting expensive. I'm wondering if there is a Grant to apply for? Companies, Foundations, Private Trusts, Individuals willing to donate to my cause? I am willing to be the National Public Face for Adopted Native Americans Citizenship Affected by THE REAL ID ACT of 2005 Would you, your organization be willing to help? Do you know of any individuals, oragnizations, trusts, foundations willing to help? Please Email me! Thank you Email: firstname.lastname@example.org If you would like to contribute, have vital information that will help, please email email@example.com using the subject line:Adoption: Leland Kirk Written by: Leland P. Morrill PLEASE "like" my page and READ MY OTHER NOTES AND BLOG ENTRIES. Thank you!
Saturday, February 25, 2012
by Adopted Native American Citizenship Affected by The REAL ID Act of 2005 on Friday, February 24, 2012 at 10:52pm ·
Hi Blogger peeps,
I must apologize for being so quiet lately.
Me, attempting to live life,
get more noticed at work
...and also improving my craft as an Actor.
So, the past few months...
Lets start with a reunion, this note.
I met my Uncle and Aunt who live not too far from me
here in California.
That was a HUGE boost of just humanity, sense of family
and more belonging and understanding
on more levels than I can think of.
In December 2011, I found out an Uncle had moved from Arizona to California
We decided to get together for a Christmas Reunion.
It was July of 1971 when I was adopted & removed from the Reservation and the Navajo Nation, Dinétah.
and December 2011 for a reunion??
That was much more than I expected.
We set up to meet December 23rd.
What made it quite interesting is I had concocted this idea of meeting a Vietnam Vet who was kinda crazy...
...who might happen to have an episode while in his presence and...
of course my imagination went wild.
I saw myself backpacking/hitchhiking..
...if I could...
all the way back to civilization
as he lives a few miles away from a large metro-area.
In the end what I had dreamed up in my little "noggin" kinda went along the lines of :
So I was to meet my Uncle and Aunt in Pasadena at an agreed time.(exit stage left)
I think it was 11:00 a.m.
I thought, well, what if they didn't show, then what?
Then I thought,
what if they do & we start heading away from where I live & just decide,
even though they sound great on the phone,
we just "don't get along"?
Then I thought....
what if my Uncle has a Vietnam Flashback & I have to high-tail it back to the city?
I envisioned myself backpacking, climbing over the mountains
(think the Trapp Family going over The Alps). Running as fast as I can away from this crazy Vet who I didn't know what to expect next & finally getting to
like the nearest church, hailing a cab...
Lots of wierd stuff became quite creative while going through this pea-sized thought that was taking root.
Now on the Metro Goldline train and it got to the Sierra Madre Villa Station
....called to tell my Uncle and Aunt I was on approach
and from their end,
they were on the same time-frame I was.
So, as I'm walking across the walkway above the freeway approaching the METRO parking structure,
I feel them approaching....
Stronger, that spirit reaching to connect and then...
I see a vehicle turn right & think,
Even though I don't know the make or model of their vehicle...
...but I know.
I'm going down the elevator & exit and get a phone call on the cell:
Me: Hello?(Or something like that)
Them: Hey, where are you?
Me: I just exited the elevator. I see you turning right on Sierra Madre Blvd toward the Kaiser Permanente Building.
Them: How did you know?
Me: I just felt you.
Me: Just turn on Foothill, and go around, I'll meet you back here by the Parking Structure.
my Aunt gets out we hug,
all those wierd funny thoughts in my head...now fodder for a comedy sketch
(somewhere in the future.)
We ended up having a great Christmas Reunion.
My Auntie sang in the Christmas Programme at her church,
the service was awesome.
I sat right next to my Uncle & it was relaxing.
My Uncle and I watched two Navajo films as my Auntie napped.
I brought out my documents,
we talked about what was happening back in September 1968 when my mother died unexpectedly,
his getting a military leave, the funeral, how that was messed up.
We caught up.
Iit was a great conversation. 40 years in the making...
For some reason I'm daydreaming of an old Bedouin roaming 40 years in a desert somewhere across the water back in the "olden" days.
And then from Ferris Beuller's Day off:
"When Cameron was in Egypt's land... let my Cameron go!"
We had a great time,
My uncle enjoys outdoor cooking and is an amazing chef. So glad cooking "runs in the family". :D
My Aunt and I did prep work & talked quite a bit
The three of us created quite a delicious Christmas Dinner.
Overall, THE BEST CHRISTMAS EVER...did I say ever?
We spent the following Monday in LA County around Sunset ...
...Avenue in Azusa...
Turns out ( and I kinda knew this) that the Kirk Family migrated to Azusa.
My Grandfather John, Ruth and family...
My uncles and aunts as teens & pre-teens, lived here until 1958 before moving back to Arizona.
It was a great neighborhood & to see my Uncle running around like a wild indian???
...a little kid in a candy store was pretty entertaining.
What a great Christmas 2011 we had.
We've been talking on and off, trying to figure out where our boundaries are,
finding out more about each other with each lengthy conversation.
What an amazing blessing to be reunited after 40 years.
And this next month
we'll be seeing each other again for a quick weekender. :)
Yes, my life has become much more relaxed, more busy....
One more feature film,
This time as a Coventry Academy Fan & then a Crooked Arrow Fan (go Crooked Arrows!)
in Crooked Arrows (the first Native American Sports Film)...
working...internet marketing at a jewelry company round the corner,
creating new family bonds, or re-creating, however you wish to interpret.
My Uncle created a pencil drawing of my mother Linda Carolyn Kirk:
Thank You Uncle Ernie.
Walk in Beauty.
Saturday, November 12, 2011
Sunday, November 6, 2011
Life Update, Eddie Pacheco, and some of my thoughts about the Navajo Nation ID Card. :) Thanks for reading- Leland
by Adopted Native American Citizenship Affected by The REAL ID Act of 2005 on Sunday, November 6, 2011 at 12:59am
Jimmy Calabaza and I, Leland Pacheco (Kirk) Morrill
I apologize for not posting notes or info about what I've been up to during the Summer until now. It's been a rough time both financially and otherwise but the Native Spirit in me is resilient. I thank all the great energy around me, for those who've helped me along the way both by helping me figure out a new route when stuck at a dead end through thought, life-pattern, financially, food-wise, etc. I was always helped by some great energy source and I am grateful.
I now am working again at a jewelry company here in Los Angeles. I've spent the summer selling Obagi Vitamin C Serum online at Ebay, that helped pay the bills. For those who purchased that product, THANK YOU. I am grateful because that paid the bills.
In August I decided I needed another source of income, as no job prospects were there, so I signed up with Central Casting and was cast in a film END OF WATCH as an immigrant, then was in a TV series called Rizzoli and Isles as background and in September I was cast as a Tribal Officer in another feature film SAVAGES. Both END OF WATCH and SAVAGES will come out in 2012 so watch for those. In October I gave back and volunteered as an extra in a Stand Up To Cancer national commercial that aired during the 2011 Major League Baseball World Series pre-game and playoffs.
Acting paid the bills and I am grateful for those. I also met up with some great Native American actors from various tribes/nations that live here in Southern California. Some I've remained friends with. Those friendships I am grateful for.
For those who have read my NOTES, you know my struggle and it's been a long expensive achievement toward being enrolled in the Navajo Nation, one where I had to garner some national attention including blogging and facebooking about it. Thank you for reading. And to those who have given input, comment, and suggestions, THANK YOU. I used everything that was given.
Today I decided to attend the annual American Indian Arts Marketplace at The Autry National Center (museum) in Griffith Park across from the Los Angeles Zoo. I attended in part because one of my acting friends Dennis Garica's brother has a booth there ever year. Ted Garcia is Chumash-Tataviam and makes Soapstone carvings and is quite talented, finding many of his stones in the Bouquet Canyon area, near the dam up in northern Los Angeles County near Santa Clarita, California. I arrived after talking to another of my friends Tai, also from acting, and we wandered around as Tai introduced me to many of the native vendors. This was how I happened upon a man named Jimmy Calabaza, from the Santo Domingo Pueblo.
As some of you know from my NOTES, Linda Carolyn Kirk and Eddie Pacheco are my biological parents. At least I've always been told Eddie Pacheco was my father, hence my middle name PACHECO that Judge Joe G Bennalley, Trial Court of the Navajo Tribe in Chinle Arizona, insisted I keep as my middle name instead of KIRK. I've learned over time, there is purpose for events happening, this was one.
It turns out as my search ensued, I learned Linda Kirk, my biological mother, met Eddie Kirk in Albuquerque as she worked a government job there. I was born in 1966 as a result of their relationship. Eddie is from the Santo Domingo Pueblo.
So getting back to Jimmy Calabaza. As my friend Tai was talking to some of the people at Jimmy's booth, I looked at earings & purchased a pair. I started talking about my mother dating a guy named Eddie Pacheco & Jimmys wife was more verbal & she started discussing that with me as Jimmy listened but didn't really say much. We talked about other things, such as internet marketing and such to fill in the gaps of the conversation. I finally got out of Jimmy and his wife that Eddie Pacheco had died. After finding that out, I had this feeling that was the end of the road on my search.
Sometimes that's just the way life is. Just there. I didn't ask when he died as it was a public marketplace and it didn't seem appropriate.I just left it at that. As far as Jimmy and his wife knew, my mother only dated Eddie. I didn't tell them Eddie Pacheco was my biological father. I thought that would be too much to tell them in one dose. I have since emailed Jimmy so as soon as he opens that "pandora box" email, he will be aware the reason for my questions.
The picture above is of me and Jimmy. I thought it interesting how similar our features were. The excuse I gave for attempting and successful photograph was because I wanted a picture of "the artist" the person who made the earrings I purchased. Sly, I know.
On another note, The Navajo Nation is coming out with their National/Tribal ID cards on 11-11-11, Veterans Day. I had planned on attending and was going to take the Amtrak to Gallup. My Aunt and Uncle were going to pick me up and I was going to tell my final decision once I'd talked to the Window Rock Vital Statistics. I emailed Leonard Benally at Vital Statistics soon after President Ben Shelly's National Address where he announced there would be Tribal Cards issued. Mr Benally never responded so I finally called and talked to RuthAnn at Vital Statistics. I found out only 100 ID's would be issued on Veterans Day and people would be selected at random. The likelihood of me getting one that day might have been slim so I have now decided to wait.
My Aunt said December would work for them, so that is what I am going to shoot for taking the Amtrak to Gallup and then heading to the Window Rock Vital Statistics office to get a Tribal Card. I hope ever Navajo Nation member understands the importance of obtaining one, at $17 a pop. It's important as it will replace the green CIB paper.
Well, I'm exhaused from the day and will continue to post other content as time progresses. I am thankful to have my identity back, a State Issued Drivers License & my CIB.WHEW what a year.
I'm also thankful for the reintroduction to my Navajo Roots, meeting my cousin Matthew in March 2011 just before I obtained my CIB. Now to get my brown butt back to the REZ to see the rest of the Kirk family. :)
Thank you so much for reading my NOTES, my frustrations, failures, successes and triumphs. Hopefully my story and any content within this and my blog will assist/help others in their journey and make them aware they are not alone in their search nor are they as unique as they thought.
Walk in Beauty!
Tuesday, June 21, 2011
by Leland P. Morrill Adopted Native American Citizenship Affected by The REAL ID Act of 2005 on Tuesday, June 21, 2011 at 5:24pm
Change...kinda hard huh. I was just watching my online friend Ryan Yezak's video Moving On, very inspiring.
HERE IT IS just in case you need some inspiration in your life:
One area of my life that has had a continual focus has been on the years of research to obtain my Navajo Nation Birth Affidavit and membership back into the Navajo Nation. I thought perhaps it would be a great idea now that some time has passed to start and catalogue or write steps to help others. Any suggestions of areas where to take this page from here forward is something I am struggling with.
First off, if you don't have any understanding of the Real ID Act, you can read the Wikipedia content here: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/REAL_ID_Act and then you can "GOOGLE" the subject if you feel you need to.
How does The Real ID ACT of 2005 affect me?
When you apply or renew a State issued Identification Card or Drivers License you will have to supply proof of your existence.
For most people this will be easy. You will need:
An original copy of your State issued Birth Certificate
An original copy of your Social Security Card issued by the Social Security Administration
a photo, usually taken on the spot once you have provided the first two. Just out of habit, of renewing, you'll probably show your current expiring State issued ID or DL card.
Pay the fee and you're done.
This page/blog is more for Native Americans born within one of the fifty States of America who were adopted out of their tribe without proper documentation such as a State issued Birth Certificate or National (Native Nation) Birth Certificate/Affidavit. Sometime in addition to not having a birth document, you may not be enrolled into your respective Nation or Tribe, as in my case.
Where do you go from here if the local DMV (Department of Motor Vehicles) denies you a State issued identification card or drivers license card?
If you're an adopted Native American, one of the first places to start your search is your Final Judgement of Adoption, aka adoption papers. Make sure you have an original copy, or a certified copy. If, over the years you only have a photocopy, or G*d-forbid, a mimeographed one (LOL) then you'll need to contact the issuing Family Court.
Be thankful today we live in the INFORMATION AGE. GOOGLE, or search for the address, website, telephone number of the issuing Family Court. It's a great idea to call them. Find out what form, or if you have to write a letter, what is required and start assembling that and send it off. These days, who knows, it may be as easy as filling out an online form, submitting it and paying it with a credit/debit card and then waiting for them to send you an original copy of your Final Judgement of Adoption. You may be required to download, print, fill it out, sign, date and then have it notorized. Some copy, office supply stores have notaries & the prices will vary. Here in Los Angeles, the price of a notary I used at Coast Stationary in my neighborhood on Spring Street here in Los Angeles.
Coast Stationary was great for me as they also had a fax machine, internet as well as the notary service. They charged me a $10.00 notary fee. That will give you an idea of how much it may cost you to notarize your documents as you continue to research your documentation. By the way, it's a great idea to purchase multiple copies of "originals" from the State or National Family Court because you may end up having to one to a State Vital Statistics office, another to a "Native" Nation Vital Statistics office and then, OH YEA!!!! YOU NEED at least ONE! :D
On your Final Judgement of Adoption look to see if your birth date, birth location and census number are on it. If they are not. Call back the State or National Family Court and ask why they are not on the document. In my case, for some mysterious reason, the Navajo Nation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, State of Arizona turned a blind eye to this and Judge Joe Benalley signed off on the adoption and my parents fled off to Canada with me and my Navajo sister the day after our adoption, July 16, 1971. Yup...well actually, my adopted dad was transferred with the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. (A whole other "story"). Getting back on subject. Sometimes, as in my case, the adopting parents were supposed to fill out the application for a birth certificate and the application will still be laying in a file somewhere. If not. you're going to have to start your search.
If your adopted parents are still alive, ask them all the questions you can currently think of about your adoption. Find out any stories they heard along the way of adopting you. If you were a foster child, what was your last name, did you have siblings, aunties, uncles, cousins, etc. Are there any pre-adoption medical records? What hospitals, medical centers?
WRITE EVERYTHING DOWN.
Utilize the internet.
If you do not have the internet at home, find an internet cafe, or a wi-fi hotspot. If you have a public library, use their computers or utilize their "hotspot" with your own laptop/netbook. I'm in my local library writing this note/blogpost...Yup, The Central Library downtown LA. :D
After you've written everything down, applied and sent off the necessary forms for your original copies of your adoption papers... that's your starting point.
The next entry will start where this one ended.
IF you have any suggestions about this entry, PLEASE "comment". Oh, an LIKE my page
Friday, June 10, 2011
The positive capacity of people to cope with stress and adversity.
Light at the end of the tunnel.
Leland Pacheco Morrill, born Leland Kirk
The search I and many Navajos and other Native americans have achieved, and those who will endure to retain U.S. Citizenship and legal status in the fifty States of America because of the Real ID Act of 2005 is one that proves we as natives to this land are resilient, enduring, here to stay and will identify ourselves over and over again regardless of any assimilation tactic placed upon our native nations, be they individual or otherwise.
I'll start from my own experience. If you've been reading my notes you've obviously felt my raw anxiety, stresses, and roadblocks that have been overcome. If you haven't read my notes...please, I invite you to. I started out back in 1984-85 as a freshman at Brighham Young University in Provo Utah 18 years old and hearing the name of an Aunt Ruth, who happens to be Ruth Shirley-Kirk married to my biological mothers fathers brother John Kirk (Great Uncle). I'd also heard the name Linda Kirk as my biological mother. No documentation at that time was presented with the hearsay from my adopted parents, or from any legal standpoint either. As some of you readers know from previous notes written on this page/blog: my Final Judgement of Adoption did not have an Indian Census number on it, did not name my biological parents by name, nor was my birth date ever mentioned nor percentage of indian blood. The judge, Joe G. Bennalley of the Trial Court of the Navajo Tribe also did not follow through and order a birth certificate or affidavit as a representative of a Nation. This was my starting point 25-26 years ago. From that point over a span of the decades including the 80's, 90's, 2000's and 2010's, I built up my evidence by first finding out some of the Navajo's I attended university with were related and then with further questioning finding out the names of relatives that matched & finding out where they lived. I went and visited in the Spring/Summer of 1985 my Aunt Ruth Shirley-Kirk and also at that time met my cousin Calvin Kirk who to this day I understand still remembers that awkward encounter.
From there my search wained a bit as I started to work on self, finding my place, working and living life. In September 1989 with a few friends, Freddie Tsosie and if recalled correctly, Everett Chackee and Anderson Thomas, we travelled to the Navajo Reservation on vacation. Everett and Anderson both had to go to the Gallup Indian Hospital so we spent the day there. Yes, all day. That was normal to them. While there, just on a whim, I decided to see if there were any medical records for me there so, I checked and sure enough found out I had been there from 1969-1971 under the name Leland Kirk. So, I filled out the needed paperwork and obtained copies of my own medical records. Little did I know how valuable the short three year record from 1969 to 1971 would become decades later in my search to retain my own legal status in the United States, the right to have a State issued identification card and State issued drivers license, the right to be employed, and all other rights taken for granted IF one posesses that valuable plastic State issued card.
Yes I had to read the fine print, figure out a timeline of my life for those three years, talk to U.S. Senators, U.S. Commissioners, write anyone who I figured out might have any knowledge about who my parents might have been, etc. Then came the internet. I became increasingly amazed at how information can be traded at lightning speed. How tools such as blog/Facebook Page, GOOGLE, County Property Records, web resources such as the LDS Church Family History Library, The National Archives could be manipulated and useful in my search to regain my lost identity. I had two lost identities by now, one created by the Real ID ACT of 2005 where I needed to prove my United States Birth, even though I'd only been told a place of birth, which I now no longer use as Fort Defiance Arizona has replaced that, and also that of my Native Nation, Dine, or Navajo.
Resilience, hard work, years of sleepless nights, great friends, new found relatives all who empowered and energized me by helping prod me along when I became weary, upset, fatigued by the process of research research and more research and every roadblock, intersection along my path to finally obtaining my Navajo Nation Birth Affidavit. Yes, at some point I found the light at the end of the tunnel & walked through it with new found knowledge and understanding of how resilient one person can be, with the aid of a whole city/village of people helping me along. Yes, I asked for alot of help along the way. Sometimes there was no answer, sometimes I didn't know the answer was already there, but just needed interpretation, and sometimes, I admit, I bluffed a little just to see if another potential source could confirm my findings and then provide more based on them and if I traded information. Knowledge is power. I found out that to be key.
Part of what really helped me along was writing every little detail down, first and last names, phone numbers, email addresses, links, times and dates of when and who was spoken too and the details of each conversation. I have boxes of information needing to be sorted through, and the process written down how I arrived at each stage so when others ask me what the next step is, my turn to assist kicks in. Green light.
Today is Grateful Friday, and yes, I am grateful to all who have helped me. Those from the Navajo Nation, State Public Social Service departments, DMV's, politicians, attorneys, family both adopted and biological, and above all FRIENDS who stuck by me when it seemed like I had the loosing cards but in the end didn't. Perhaps bluffing a lil helped during my own experience, but I won out and now have that Certificate of Navajo Indian Blood, CIB, and a Navajo Nation Affidavit of Birth. It took a village of people. To that village of people: I am grateful, thankful and ever humbled by the immense process I can now look back at as I start my new life.
Next week I am interviewing for a position with the Torres Martinez Desert Cahuilla Indian Tribe, a new life I hope, of serving native people and helping to make our United States and our Native Nations more cohesive, and a better place to live and thrive.
Please read my other notes and comment.
Wednesday, June 1, 2011
Navajo Nation celebrates the Treaty of Peace Between the Navajo Indian Tribe and the United States of America...I had to read it
by Leland P. Morrill Adopted Native American Citizenship Affected by The REAL ID Act of 2005 on Wednesday, June 1, 2011 at 8:52pm
My name is Leland Pacheco Morrill, born Leland Pacheco Kirk, son of Linda Carolyn Kirk and Edward Pacheco. My mothers Maternal Clan is Many Goats Clan and her paternal Clan is the Tangle Clan.
I was adopted prior to the 1978 Indian Welfare Act during the time of the Adoption Resource Exchange of North America (ARENA) on July 14, 1971 out of Chinle Arizona to an Ango Mormon family, the Morrills. Judge Joe Bennalley was the Trial Court Judge of the Navajo Tribe who separated me from the Navajo Nation by not assigning me a Census Number, nor referring to my Navajo parents by name or writing in my Final Judgement of Adoption the date of my birth. All these proved successfully to separate me from my native Nation.
It is because of this separation and my determination and law, The Real ID ACT of 2005, that I finally successfully gained membership into the Nation of my birthright on April 11, 2011, almost 40 years after my adoption and through 22 years of research. Because of my inquisitive nature and knowing the Navajo Nation is in celebratory spirits over this Treaty between the Tribe and America, it perked my interest as to what the treaty was about.
I do not speak Navajo, but hope to some day, and also would like to know stories of The Long Walk from Fort Sumpter New Mexico in now where Highway 60 and 86 meet some 300 miles from Chinle, Arizona where I was adopted out of and 328 mile from Fort Defiance where the Navajo Nation Vital Statistics assigned my birth after long discussing and thought this past April.
On June 1, 1968 29 Navajo "headmen" signed the Treaty of Peace Between the Navajo Indian Tribe and the United States of America.
I'm sure few even have read this treaty or know of the Navajo signers:
Armijo, Delgado, Manuelito, Largo, Herrero, Chiqueto, Muerto De Hombre, Hombro, Narbono, Narbono Segundo, Ganado Mucho
or the Council:
Riquo, Juan Martin, Serginto, Grande, Inoetenito, Muchachos Mucho, Chiqueto Segundo, Cabello Amarillo, Francisco, Torivio, Desdendado, Juan, Guero, Gugadore, Cabason, Barbon Segundo, Cabares Colorados.
First I will go over what my thought are as I'm reading the Treaty for the FIRST TIME. Then afterward is the actual wording of the Treaty so you may understand where my thoughts came from as I was reading through the Treaty of 1968.
Before I start, Happy Independance Day to the Navajo Nation June 1, 2011, my first as a member of the Navajo Nation.
In Article 2 Fort Defiance, in Canon Bonito, is named as the Northern edge of the Navajo Nation Fort Defiance. This is where the Navajo Nation Vital Statistics personnel, Alisia, thought was closest to where I may have been born, this is where I am assigned. Also, as a child I remember hiking down Canyon de Chelly, also named as Canon-de-Chilly in the Treaty.
The costs of buildings to start the nation as being interesting:
Warehouse <=$2,500.00 Agency Building/ (agent "for" the Navajo's) Residence <= $3,000.00 Carpenter Shop $1,000.00 Blacksmith Shop $1,000.00 School $5,000.00 Chapel $5,000.00 This treaty refers to head of a family, where recognition of a matriachial society is not mentioned, the writing is in the masculine only, for homesteading up to 160 acres or any person 18 years old without a family or not being a head of household to have up to 80 acres to cultivate to be known as settlers. It's interesting to read in Article 7 how each farmer receives the first year $100.00 and second and succeeeding years $25.00 for seeds and implementation. I do like how the Treaty provided for education of children ages 6-16 and for a schoolhouse to be provided for every 30 with a teacher, but the thought of only an English Education bothers me, because I myself do not speak Navajo after being separated from my Nation through adoption by one of their own, Judge Joe G. Bennalley. In Article 8 it talks of providing clothing and goods of <=$5.00 to make clothing and blankets and then $10.00 for ten additional years those who do farming or "mechanical" jobs. So making the Navajo Nation industrious or keeping it so, was paramount in this 1868 Treaty. The railroad seemed to be a cause for concern and opposition to it's construction as well. Makes me wonder what a scalp looks like after reading Article 9, 5. I do like how provision of obstruction, such as buildings, railroad, roads, etc are to be compensated to the Navajo Nation within this Treaty. I also like how in Article 10 a vote of 3/4 of the adult male Indians, I'm guessing these would be head of household or males over 18 years of age must be made for any changes in the treaty but am wondering if and how this has been honored throughout time. I'm not liking the wording of "removal, to the reservation" in Article 11. It makes Navajo's sound like cattle, less than human. Then again, there was a long walk of 300 miles. As for the cost of removal $150,000.00 doesn't seem like alot for a removal and starting a new Nation, The Navajo Nation, just before a winter. $50,000.00(estimate) for the removal of the tribe from the Bosque Redonodo Reservation to the Reservation. 15,000 sheep: <=$30,000.00 500 beef cattle 1,000,000 lbs of corn for the relief of the "needy" for the upcoming winter after the 1968 removal onto the Reservation. One part of this Treaty I do not like is Article 8 where it states: " if any Navajo Indian or Indians shall leave the reservation herein described to settle elsewhere, he or they shall forfeit all the rights, privileges, and annuities conferred by the terms of this treaty". My reasoning comes from my own removal through adoption pre-1978 Indian Welfare Act during the time the Child Welfare League of America used A.R.E.N.A., Adoption Resource Exchange of North America program to remove me as a minor off the Navajo Reservation. Oh, Happy Memorial Day 2011!! Happy Memorial Day May 30, 2011 from Santa Monica Beach California Below is the actual wording of the Treaty of 1868
Concluded June 1, 1868
Ratification advised July 25, 1868
Proclaimed August 12, 1868
PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES
TO ALL AND SINGULAR TO WHOM THESE PRESENTS SHALL COME, GREETING:
Whereas a Treaty was made and concluded at Fort Sumner, in the Territory of New Mexico, on the first day of June, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-eight, by and between Lieutenant General W. T. Sherman and
Samuel F. Tappan, Commissioners, on the part of the United States, and Barboncito, Armijo, and other Chiefs and Headmen of the Navajo tribe of Indians, on the part of said Indians, and duly authorized thereto by them, which Treaty is in the words and figures following, to wit:
Articles of a Treaty and Agreement made and entered into at Fort Sumner, New Mexico, on the first day of June, 1868, by and between the United States, represented by its Commissioners, Lieutenant General W. T. Sherman and Colonel
Samuel F. Tappan, of the one part, and the Navajo nation or tribe of Indians, represented by their Chiefs and Headmen, duly authorized and empowered to act for the whole people of said nation or tribe, (the names of said Chiefs and Headmen being hereto subscribed,) of the other part, witness:
From this day forward all war between the parties to this agreement shall for ever cease. The government of the United States desires peace, and its honor is hereby pledged to keep it. The Indians desire peace, and they now pledge their honor to keep it.
If bad men among the whites, or among other people subject to the authority of the United States, shall commit any wrong upon the person or property of the Indians, the United States will, upon proof made to the agent and forwarded to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs at Washington city, proceed at once to cause the offender to be arrested and punished according to the laws of the United States, and also to reimburse the injured persons for the loss sustained.
If bad men among the Indians shall commit a wrong or depredation upon the person or property of any one, white, black, or Indian, subject to the authority of the United States and at peace therewith, the Navajo tribe agree that they will, on
proof made to their agent, and on notice by him, deliver up the wrongdoer to the United States, to be tried and punished according to its laws; and in case they wilfully refuse so to do, the person injured shall be reimbursed for his loss from the annuities or other moneys due or to become due them under this treaty, or any others that may be made with the United States. And the President may prescribe such rules and regulations for ascertaining damages under this article as in his judgment may be proper; but no such damage shall be adjusted and paid until examined and passed upon by the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, and no one sustaining loss whilst violating, or because of his violating, the provisions of this treaty or the laws of the United States shall be reimbursed therefor.
The United States agrees that the following district of country, to wit: bounded on the north by the 37th degree of north latitude, south by an east and west line passing through the site of old Fort Defiance, in Canon Bonito, east by the parallel of longitude which, if prolonged south, would pass through old Fort Lyon, or the Ojo-de-oso, Bear Spring, and west by a parallel of longitude about 109' 30' west of Greenwicb, provided it embraces the outlet of the Canon-de-Chilly, which canon is to be all included in this reservation, shall be, and the same is hereby, set apart for the use and occupation of the Navajo tribe of Indians, and for such other friendly tribes or individual Indians as from time to time they may be willing, with the consent of the United States, to admit among them; and the United States agrees that no persons except those herein so authorized to do, and except such officers, soldiers, agents, and employes of the government, or of the Indians, as may be authorized to enter upon Indian reservations in discharge of duties imposed by law, or the orders of the President, shall ever be permitted to pass over, settle upon, or reside in, the territory described in this article.
The United States agrees to cause to be built at some point within said reservation, where timber and water may be convenient, the following buildings: a warehouse, to cost not exceeding twenty-five hundred dollars; an agency building for the residence of the agent, not to cost exceeding three thousand dollars; a carpenter shop and blacksmith shop, not to cost exceeding one thousand dollars each; and a school-house and chapel, so soon as a sufficient number of children can be induced to attend school, which shall not cost to exceed five thousand dollars.
The United States agrees that the agent for the Navajos shall make his home at the agency building; that he shall reside among them and shall keep an office open at all times for the purpose of prompt and diligent inquiry into such matters of complaint by or against the Indians as may be presented for investigation, as also for the faithful discharge of other duties enjoined by law. In all cases of depredation on person or property he shall cause the evidence to be taken in writing and forwarded, together with his finding, to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, whose decision shall be binding on the parties to this treaty.
If any individual belonging to said tribe, or legally incorporated with it, being the head of a family, shall desire to commence farming, he shall have the privilege to select, in the presence and with the assistance of the agent then in charge, a tract of land within said reservation, not exceeding one hundred and sixty acres in extent, which tract, when so selected, certified, and recorded in the "land book" as herein described, shall cease to be held in common, but the same may be occupied and held in the exclusive possession of the person selecting it, and of his family, so long as he or they may continue to cultivate it.
Any person over eighteen years of age, not being the head of the family, may in like manner select, and cause to be certified to him or her for purposes of cultivation, a quantity of land, not exceeding eighty acres in extent, and thereupon be entitled to the exclusive possession of the same as above directed.
For each tract of land so selected a certificate containing a description thereof, and the name of the person selecting it, with a certificate endorsed thereon that the same has been recorded, shall be delivered to the party entitled to it by the agent, after the same shall have been recorded by him in a book to be kept in his office, subject to inspection which said book shall be known as the "Navajo Land Book."
The President may at any time order a survey of the reservation, and, when so surveyed, Congress shall provide for protecting the rights of said settlers in their improvements, and may fix the character of the title held by each. The United States may pass such laws on the subject of alienation and descent of property between the Indians and their descendants as may be thought proper.
In order to insure the civilization of the Indians entering into this treaty, the necessity of education is admitted, especially of such of them as may be settled on said agricultural parts of this reservation, and they therefore pledge themselves to compel their children, male and female, between the ages of six and sixteen years, to attend school; and it is hereby made the duty of the agent for said Indians to see that this stipulation is strictly complied with; and the United States agrees that, for every thirty children between said ages who can be induced or compelled to attend school, a house shall be provided, and a teacher competent to teach the elementary branches of an English education shall be furnished, who will reside among said Indians, and faithfully discharge his or her duties as a teacher.
The provisions of this article to continue for not less than ten years.
When the head of a family shall have selected lands and received his certificate as above directed, and the agent shall be satisfied that he intends in good faith to commence cultivating the soil for a living, he shall be entitled to receive seeds and agricultural implements for the first year, not exceeding in value one hundred dollars, and for each succeeding year he shall continue to farm, for a period of two years, he shall be entitled to receive seeds and implements to the value of twenty-five dollars.
In lieu of all sums of money or other annuities provided to be paid to the Indians herein named under any treaty or treaties heretofore made, the United States agrees to deliver at the agency house on the reservation herein named, on the first day of September of each year for ten years, the following articles, to wit:
Such articles of clothing, goods, or raw materials in lieu thereof, as the agent may make his estimate for, not exceeding in value five dollars per Indian-each Indian being encouraged to manufacture their own clothing, blankets, etc.; to be furnished with no article which they can manufacture themselves. And, in order that the Commissioner of Indian Affairs may be able to estimate properly for the articles herein named, it shall be the duty of the agent each year to forward to him a full and exact census of the Indians, on which the estimate from year to year can be based.
And in addition to the articles herein named, the sum of ten dollars for each person entitled to the beneficial effects of this treaty shall be annually appropriated for a period of ten years, for each person who engages in farming or mechanical pursuits, to be used by the Commissioner of Indian Affairs in the purchase of such articles as from time to time the condition and necessities of the Indians may indicate to be proper; and if within the ten years at any time it shall appear that the amount of money needed for clothing, under the article, can be appropriated to better uses for the Indians named herein, the Commissioner of Indian Affairs may change the appropriation to other purposes, but in no event shall the amount of this appropriation be withdrawn or discontinued for the period named, provided they remain at peace. And the President shall annually detail an officer of the army to be present and attest the delivery of all the goods herein named to the Indians, and he shall inspect and report on the quantity and quality of the goods and the manner of
In consideration of the advantages and benefits conferred by this treaty, and the many pledges of friendship by the United States, the tribes who are parties to this agreement hereby stipulate that they will relinquish all right to occupy any territory outside their reservation, as herein defined, but retain the right to hunt on any unoccupied lands contiguous to their reservation, so long as the large game may range thereon in such numbers as to justify the chase; and they, the said Indians, further expressly agree:
That they will make no opposition to the construction of railroads now being built or hereafter to be built, across the continent.
That they will not interfere with the peaceful construction of any railroad not passing over their reservation as herein defined.
That they will not attack any persons at home or travelling, nor molest or disturb any wagon trains, coaches, mules or cattle belonging to the people of the United States, or to persons friendly therewith.
That they will never capture or carry off from the settlements women or children.
They will never kill or scalp white men, nor attempt to do them harm.
They will not in future oppose the construction of railroads, wagon roads, mail stations, or other works of utility or necessity which may be ordered or permitted by the laws of the United States; but should such roads or other works be constructed on the lands of their reservation, the government will pay the tribe whatever amount of damage may be assessed by three disinterested commissioners to be appointed by the President for that purpose, one of said commissioners to be a chief or head man of the tribe.
They will make no opposition to the military posts or roads now established, or that may be established, not in violation of treaties heretofore made or hereafter to be made with any of the Indian tribes.
No future treaty for the cession of any portion or part of the reservation herein described, which may be held in common, shall be of any validity or force against said Indians unless agreed to and executed by at least three-fourths of all the adult male Indians occupying or interested in the same; and no cession by the tribe shall be understood or construed in such manner as to deprive, without his consent, any individual member of the tribe of his rights to any tract of land selected by him as provided in article 5 of this treaty.
The Navajos also hereby agree that at any time after the signing of these presents they will proceed in such manner as may be required of them by the agent, or by the officer charged with their removal, to the reservation herein provided for, the United States paying for their subsistence en route, and providing a reasonable amount of transportation for the sick and feeble.
It is further agreed by and between the parties to this agreement that the sum of one hundred and fifty thousand dollars appropriated or to be appropriated shall be disbursed as follows, subject to any conditions provided in the law, to wit:
The actual cost of the removal of the tribe from the Bosque Redondo reservation to the reservation, say fifty thousand dollars.
The purchase of fifteen thousand sheep and goats, at a cost not to exceed thirty thousand dollars.
The purchase of five hundred beef cattle and a million pounds of corn, to be collected and held at the military post nearest the reservation, subject to the orders of the agent, for the relief of the needy during the coming winter.
The balance, if any, of the appropriation to be invested for the maintenance of the Indians pending their removal, in such manner as the agent who is with them may determine.
The removal of this tribe to be made under the supreme control and direction of the military commander of the Territory of New Mexico, and when completed, the management of the tribe to revert to the proper agent.
The tribe herein named, by their representatives, parties to this treaty, agree to make the reservation herein described their permanent home, and they will not as a tribe make any permanent settlement elsewhere, reserving the right to hunt on the lands adjoining the said reservation formerly called theirs, subject to the modifications named in this treaty and the orders of the commander of the department in which said reservation may be for the time being; and it is further agreed and understood by the parties to this treaty, that if any Navajo Indian or Indians shall leave the reservation herein described to settle elsewhere, he or they shall forfeit all the rights, privileges, and annuities conferred by the terms of this treaty; and it is further agreed by the parties to this treaty, that they will do all they can to induce Indians now away from reservations set apart for the exclusive use and occupation of the Indians, leading a nomadic life, or engaged in war against the people of the United States, to abandon such a life and settle permanently in one of the territorial reservations set apart for the exclusive use and occupation of the Indians.
In testimony of all which the said parties have hereunto, on this the first day ofJune, eighteen hundred and sixty-eight, at Fort Sumner, in the Territory of New Mexico, set their hands and seals.
W. T. SHERMAN
Lt. Gen'l, Indian Peace Commissioner.
S. F. TAPPAN, Indian Peace Commissioner.
BARBONCITO, Chief. his x mark.
ARMIJO. his x mark.
MANUELITO. his x mark.
LARGO. his x mark.
HERRERO. his x mark.
CHIQUETO. his x mark.
MUERTO DE HOMBRE. his x mark.
HOMBRO. his x mark.
NARBONO. his x mark.
NARBONO SEGUNDO. his x mark.
GANADO MUCHO. his x mark.
RIQUO. his x mark.
JUAN MARTIN. his x mark.
SERGINTO. his x mark.
GRANDE. his x mark.
INOETENITO. his x mark.
MUCHACHOS MUCHO. his x mark.
CHIQUETO SEGUNDO. his x mark.
CABELLO AMARILLO. his x mark.
FRANCISCO. his x mark.
TORIVIO. his x mark.
DESDENDADO. his x mark.
JUAN. his x mark.
GUERO. his x mark.
GUGADORE. his x mark.
CABASON. his x mark.
BARBON SEGUNDO. his x mark.
CABARES COLORADOS. his x mark.
Geo. W. G. Getty, Col. 37th Inf'y, Bt. Maj. Gen't U. S. A.
B. S. Roberts, Bt. Brg. Gen't U. S. A., Lt. Col. 3rd Cav'y.
J. Cooper Mckee, Bt. Lt. Col. Surgeon U. S. A.
Theo. H. Dodd, U. S. Indian Ag't for Navajos.
Chas. McClure, Bt. Maj. and C. S. U. S. A.
James F. Weeds, Bt. Maj. and Asst. Surg. U. S. A.
J. C. Sutherland, Interpreter.
William Vaux, Chaplain U. S. A.
And whereas, the said treaty having been submitted to the Senate of the United States for its constitutional action thereon, the Senate did, on the twenty-fifth day of July, one thousand eight hundred and sixty-eight, advise and consent to the ratification of the same, by a resolution in the words and figures following, to wit:
In Executive Session, Senate of the United States,
July 25, 1868
Resolved, (two-thirds of the senators present concurring,) That the Senate advise and consent to the ratification of the treaty between the United States and the Navajo Indians, concluded at Fort Sumner, New Mexico, on the first day of June, 1868.
GEO. C. GORHAM,
By W. J. McDONALD,
Now, therefore, be it known that 1, Andrew Johnson, President of the United States of America, do, in pursuance of the advice and consent of the Senate, as expressed in its resolution of the twenty-fifth of July, one thousand eight hundred and sixty-eight, accept, ratify, and confirm the said treaty
In testimony whereof, I have hereto signed my name, and caused the seal of the United States to be affixed.
one at the City of Washington, this twelfth day of August, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-eight, and of the Independence of the
United States of America the ninety-third.
By the President:
Acting Secretary of State
SIGNING OF THE 1868 TREATY OF PEACE BETWEEN THE NAVAJO INDIAN TRIBE AND THE UNITED STATES
June 1, 1968, LYNDON B. JOHNSON, President of the United States of America